Fiducial Reference Measurements for Soil Moisture 

The FRM4SM project ( draws on the experience gained in the development of large scale in-situ SM data-sets and of services for the validation of satellite-retrieved and modeled  SM. It consists of several activities aimed at achieving synergies between all phases in the Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) of SM products, from the provision of quality-assured, reliable in-situ measurements to the development of FRM-compliant protocols with a specific focus on space born microwave radiometric SM retrieval.

Project goals

  • Establishment of community-standards  for in-situ SM measurements
  • Development of FRM protocols for satellite SM retrieval Cal/Val activities
  • Establishment of QA4SM as a community-acknowledged reference in SM validation
  • R&D and application of the outlined protocols in Cal/Val case studies

Funding Agency
FRM4SM is supported by the European Space Agency (ESA)

Project duration
May 2021 – May 2023


Main roles of CLIMERS

  • Characterization of in-situ soil moisture measurement errors and uncertainties, development of quality data flagging algorithms and establishment of fiducial measurement datasets
  • Development of state-of-the-art validation protocols
  • Maintenance and evolution of the QA4SM validation service with implementation of the developed protocols
  • Outreach and scientific community involvement

CLIMERS members involved